Rhamphorhynchus







What would you think if you walking down a lonely street, hear a deafening roar, a wrenching and inhuman scream and scared to lift the head, could see the creature we see up above.

The options are many:


  • Some mad scientist has mixed the DNA of various beings and created this abomination. 
  • You are hallucinating and think that mixing alcohol with sleeping pills are not a good idea. 
  • Or, the most likely option. It has breached spacetime that has joined your space-time now with the space-time Earth 150,000 years ago. Facilitating the passage of this prehistoric be watching you from the roof.



Because that's the most likely possibility, I see the urgency of what this should you ever be wrong with you. 

This prehistoric flying animal called Rhamphorhynchus, translated into our language, would mean lizard "Muzzle Duck". 



The Rhamphorhynchus was one of the first pterosaurs and its features that distinguish it from other pterosaurs, we highlight its longer than normal tail. Of course, his mouth is also very peculiar. The duck-shaped, flat and wide mouth (though with long, spiny teeth) would be a good tool for catching fish. There are experts who claim that they were not so specialized, and their diet was more varied.

The other important difference from most modern pterosaurs is that the crest did not Rhamphorhynchus neither bone nor cartilage or anything. I had no intention to leave it. 
Stands and this flying lizard reach up to our chest and wing span was almost 2 meters. 
He lived in what is now Europe and Africa in the Jurassic.

Dreadnoughtus.


We found another giant dino in Argentia. A country where we found a large dinosaurs such as Argentinosaurus, Giganotosaurus, the Tyrannotitán or Madtsodia Bai, all with records in size and can be many sauropods, theropods, or the serpent, the world's largest.

The name of the great saurian, a large sauropod and what some call "the king of the dinosaurs," has been named to Dreadnoughtus, which could translate as "he who fears nothing."


Maybe call it "the king of the dinosaurs" is a bit exaggerated. Mostly because if there was a king, this could be the Argentinosaurus, a saurian also found in Patagonia Argentina but measuring up to 35 meters in length; this is about 8 meters more than Dreadnoughtus measuring 26 meters. We must clarify that the measures that have been extracted from fossils found, and it seems, could be a copy would not be fully developed, so it can even be bigger or heavier.

If we compare the weights, Dreadnoughtus reaches 65 tons. And the Argentinosaurus perfectly exceeded 100 tons, some estimates put it at 130 tonnes.



Dreadnoughtus What do we know?

First of all note a curiosity, the name refers to one of the battleships armed Argentina: monocaliber battleships. But do not mix ....

What is striking is that this prehistoric animal were recently discovered, and not one or two bones as usual, but much of the skeleton. It has been found 70% of the skeleton, also in very good condition and its deformation (by the weight of the earth) is minimal. In fact, it has provided new information about the pelvis, extremities and shoulder girdle of Titanosauria family. A family that owned the Dreadnoughtus but also Diplodocus, Giraffatitan or Argentinosaurus.

They were large herbivores that dominated the earth, like all sauropods. Elongated necks and stylized whiplike tails. A highlight feature of this lizard, was that its neck was compared with other sauropods, a bit thicker and more muscular.


The great saurian lived in the forests of what is now South America 75 million years (Cretaceous) ago.

Cynodonts

Before the Jurassic period, the great age of the dinosaurs, we find the Triassic, not as well known but very interesting events. In this period when the continents are separated from Pangea, facilitating new diversity of different species. During the Triassic mammal-like reptiles disappeared or mammal-like reptiles ... a type of animal that are midway between mammals and reptiles, and it was late in the period when the first dinosaurs dinosaurs (again because it gives me the wins).


An example of these reptiles mamiferoides disappeared are cynodonts. The cynodont is a missing link between reptiles and mammals, in fact, its name literally means "dog teeth" and if we saw it, we remind some kind of dachshund with a little alopecia. It is an animal that does not exceed one meter in length, with a small, thick tail of about 30 cm. It fed on insects and small reptiles.

When it ran, its back was moving from side to side like a lizard running (just imagine a komodo dragon running); but its body has hair and live in burrows with his beloved spouse, like mammals.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal and half mammal, half reptile, is the offspring. The couple lived cynodont within a burrow, and inside this put the eggs were hatching, like most reptiles. However, when pups out breaking the shell, they were totally dependent on their parents. For example we see that existing crocodiles out of the burrow and are adults but reduced, however, the size of most mammals are born and take time to break away from the mother because they are dependent and need to develop a strategy is more ... survival differently. Well so do the cynodonts, pup birth three months are left sucking the milk from the glands of the mother and not leave the den until they are developed enough. This is a clever way that the offspring is not threatened by predators that may have the outside world.


How I love the picture above, it is as if it were a super-predator, dangerous and totally unscrupulous murderer mammiform. But let's face it, maybe it was like in the image below.


The importance of these mammal-like reptiles, is that these small mammals evolve and hairy (the size of mice or squirrels), since dinosaurs were the kings of the food chain for 160 million years. You and I probably have in our genes the essence of cynodonts.

Aphelops



This is probably the last prehistoric animal of which I write until I get back from vacation, however, I mustered all my strength (which are already few when you look approaching the holidays) and have compiled enough information to get an idea of ​​this creature surprising. The name of this animal is to Aphelops Mutilus.

What does your name?

How ever we have seen, the name that experts give some prehistoric animals are simple, then put them in Latin or Greek, and it looks like something out of a more sensible work all palontólogo scholar and scientist. Nooooo, I do not mean this ... Mutilus, which is mutilated, and Greek + Ops aphelēs soft face. If we put all of this creature's name can be translated as the soft face mutilated. Actually, this name refers to the impression given paleontologists who discovered its remains for the first time. Found a rhinoceros, huge, which was lacking something, I had no horn ... hence the name soft mutilated face ... and how was it?

Well, as I said, it was a rhinoceros, an ancestor of the white rhino and black, but also the woolly rhinoceros. Easily exceeded 4.2 meters long (14 ft.) and was close to 3 meters tall (9 ft,). They were immense.

A large male white rhino can exceed 3,000 kg (6.600 lb), but easily surpassed Aphelops 4 tons (8.800 lb). Its constitution was robust, the larger body and smaller legs. Looked more like a hippo rhino.

Petite legs, big, round and with a huge rib cage body, without much hump like a rhinoceros. In fact, after analyzing the skeleton and teeth, experts concluded that the Aphelops Mutilus spent much of their time in the water, as hiccups live. Once out, he would be helpless, despite its large size, face formidable predators as Hyaenodon or Entelodon (or giant boar). If only I had a horn to defend ...

This large herbivore existed in the Miocene, between 20 and 5 million behind in what is now North America. Besides Aphelops Mutilus have been classified two species: Aphelops malacorhinus and Aphelops megalodus.

Panthera tigris acutidens


I'll tell you a secret. When we speak of prehistoric big cats, the most powerful, the most dangerous and terrible hunter, it's easy to come to mind two species: the Cave Lion (Panthera leo atrox) and the saber-toothed tiger (Similodon).

But really, there is another species that is probably the most terrible, strongest, largest cat that ever lived and that's a real unknown to the general public, it is the Panthera tigris acutidens. A cat can only hunt animals such as Stegodon (which is a type a type of small elephant) or Calicoterio. To get an idea, this prehistoric cat could hunt down an actual cape buffalo. One of those we see in documentaries Africa needed 4 or 5 lions to tear it down.

Panthera tigris acutidens, as the name suggests "tigris" is a kind of tiger. In fact it is considered a direct ancestor of the Asian tiger, the largest today.

Little is known of this beast. It was not only larger than the largest tiger today, it was also more massive. Therefore, it is thought that it was not a long distance runner, but short and quick, races depended stalking and grounds overgrown jungle that allowed close enough to approach their prey in a quick race. It is believed that could weigh 450 kg (992 lb), 100 kg (220 lb) more than the Siberian tiger. Moreover, the cross came to 1.30 meters and tail, could reach almost 4 meters (13 ft,).



The tusks of this were in line, about 15 cm in length. And when I was able to reach its prey nailed them like sharp daggers or spine smashed or crushed trachea hunted animal.

He lived 2 million years ago and it is not known exactly when it died ... in the early Pleistocene. In cold, snowy woods of what is now China and other parts of Asia, where its winter whitish camufrarse allowed.

Chirostenote


Ladies and gentlemen, sorry for a season without dealing the blog as much as I would have liked, but that is over. Moreover, nothing happens, the dinosaurs are timeless and, in gratitude and with intent to redeem myself, I want to show you one of the most picturesque dinosaurs that ever lived. This is the Chirostenotes, the "narrow hands."

You see the image below, you will understand what the name refers Chirostenotes or "close hand" ... no trick, its hands were narrow.



The "hands" of this saurian, were long and narrow, with very long fingers ending in sharp claws. That is the main feature.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal was its head. Look at the image below.


You know who is? As this animal is a Cassowary, a bird now living in Australia and New Guinea ... and is very aggressive. It is thought that the ridge has the Cassowary is similar to that which took the Chirostenotes. In fact, it seemed a little ... even thought this lizard was a bird. It had feathers, was bipedal, lakes and light arms and a crest like a Cassowary. But it really was not a bird.

Chirostenotes's jaw was sort of a parrot but was full of teeth. Media about 3 meters long and when were stood as tall as the average man. Grew to weigh no more than 60 kg. And think were fast and agile hunters who traveled at high speed and making great leaps and light careers.

It lived 75 million years ago in what is now Canada. And it is known today more than ever, especially for children, as it is one of the protagonists of the series of drawings Dinotren. Is smug and was known as Keenan.

Barosaurus.




The name "Barosaurus" refers to the size of this dinosaur. It is one of the greatest of all time, similar in size to Diplodocus.

The Barosaurus could reach up to 30 meters long and, at first sight, we would observe that it is the classic sauropod. Elongated, with stretched neck and whiplike tail with a tiny head and resting on its 4 legs. Was proportionally more massive than the Diplodocus, and this one was because its tail but was not as long, compared the neck itself was longer than the diplodocus.


Such a long neck poses many problems, especially uploading blood to the head that rose to the highest eat leaves of the highest trees. To address this, the general opinion raises the option of having a powerful and great heart. It has been estimated that the heart of this prehistoric animal could be as heavy and as big as the heaviest and largest bison: a heart of 1500 kg ...

Another option raises the possibility that something was 8 hearts .... funny because I know, some cephalopods have more than one heart ... but eight?
Another option is posed that Barosaurus veins had valves closed and allowed to recede and the blood does not create pressure which could be fatal. This method prevents the giraffes do not exploit their veins when head down to drink.
Mathematical models have clarified the issue, and have come to the conclusion that the animal raised its head .... then why such a long neck?

Another thing that attracts attention is that its neck vertebrae was huge. Of course, the whole animal was huge, have said the size of heart, but get an idea of ​​what our small neck vertebrae that are ... for those of Barosaurus larger than 1 meter. However, it is thought that these vertebrae were hollow, that it can reduce the weight of the neck.

Vegetarian and small head, this would be a great animal that if we go back 150 million years and travel to Africa, we would see it and we should be amazed that it was so big. We should be amazed that on Earth we know today had ever had a big animal.



Hallucigenia


Neither the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov, was as rare as this animal had happened. Get the name of Hallucigenia, a marvel of evolution. Its name refers to the word "hallucination", which is what they believed passing the first to see it, as this seems strange prehistoric animal that has been designed by a crazy artist, or an elephant or a dolphin. The paleontologists who discovered not believe what they saw, in fact, did not know its classification; if it was a plant, if it was face up or face down, did not know if he had head and where it was.

They were hallucinated when they found this impossibly small animal that was no more than 4 cm in length and that's apparitions in the Cambrian explosion, when there was the proliferation of life forms, some as strange as this.


As its body is tubular in shape, it is not easy to distinguish, in what place is the head. In fact, experts believe that the head is one of the bulky and ends with two appendices, but it's an assumption that an idea based on a test-out there.

Sensing where the head came next question was: how do walking? And still do not have the solution, after 40 years and several fossilized specimens found. The Hallucigenia had several protrusions. On the one hand, had 7 hard spines, and at first experts thought that moved like sea urchins .... moving the thorns. Then it found that he also had a soft tentacles moving in the opposite area .... how moving it? With the spikes or tentacles? Well, although it seems that the latter is more accepted, do not become totally agree ... and I do not know what to say.I will however get wet at the risk of saying the wrong thing (as you know, ignorance is very bold) If you walk with the tentacles, these could get food and on the other hand, the spines serve them to fend off potential predators. If it walk with barbed tentacles would not do them much good, much less as a defense. Therefore, to put right the Hallucigenia would say his feet were moving tentacles.

To give you a better idea of ​​the confusion brought about by the discovery of this animal, you even now some paleontologists think that it is an animal, but part of an even larger animal.
With what the story is a bit more complicated.

Anyway, if any of us, or our children, we traveled back in time to the Cambrian; Earth that we know seem another planet in another system, another galaxy and other different physical laws .... at least.

Rugops


Not all prehistoric animals are frightening Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus and Spinosaurios ... no, there are others .... but those do not interest us today (MUAHAHAHA) .... we want blood, claws, large teeth and formidable carnivores able to intimidate only imagine. Let the beasts that we like, for example, to Rugops. This prehistoric animal of the Cretaceous (about 95 million years ago), lived in Africa and is a terrible theropod (like the T-Rex for example) family of abelisaurs (lizards Abel) ...

While Rugops (wrinkled face) was large: it could reach 8 feet long and weighs same as a hippo, never got the position of dominant predator. As we have said, lived in Africa, and in that time there was another predator floating around .... the Spinosaurus.

It is this reason that some experts think it may be more of a scavenger rather than a predator ... but do not really understand how they have come to that conclusion. Right now, today, we see that the lion is bigger than a hyena, hyena hunting but even more than the lion.
Other features of this carnivore is that had small arms ... now I can say "Most theropods have small arms." Yes, true, but the Rugops was an animal with proportionately still smaller forelimbs, were little more than stumps .... to give you an idea, our arms are longer than the arms of Rugops. And considering that I could reach 9 meters is simple we get an idea of ​​their hands ... or little claws.

Moreover, as the name suggests, its skull had a half meter bony protuberances, full of venous capillaries that gave its a gruesome appearance, as if it were bad and deformed film.

Finally, some authors believe that had spikes on the neck and tail. Although they found no evidence of this, nor of barbs or inserts .... but hey, maybe that is because lately it is changing the conception we had of the saurian, such as T. Rex, is probably had therefore also the Triceratops, a few years ago it was learned that Velociraptor had feathers ... anyway. 

Below, Spinosaurio having hunted and waiting for the bottom Rugops their cake.

Arandapis

If retrocediéramos in time 475 million years to the Ordovician, we would see that our planet Earth is totally different as we know. It is very hot, and it's easy to find places with temperatures exceeding 50 º. The continents were all together and formed what is known as Gondwana, an enormous supercontinent, and therefore, if there was a supercontienente also had a superocéano called Panthalassa, meaning "all the seas".

Most would find animal life in the sea, and of course, we would not find, orcas, whales or sharks, or even, similar animals. Arthropods and vertebrates ruled the prehistoric seas and began to emphasize vertebrate species timidly, promised much for its featuresin particular the spine.

One of the first was the Arandaspis marine arthropods, one of the first fish that descended from Pikaia and that would lead to the wide range of armored fish as Dunkleosteus.

This aquatic fish, just have information. It was found some 60 years ago in Alice Spings, Australia and its name comes from the tribe that inhabited those lands (Aranda). It was about 15 cm and started having bony plates on the body that gave some protection, began to form the shield would then armoured prehistoric fish.

These fish were small, and a feature of them was that they had jaw (some experts think they did have), only a small, hard lips that helped him to swallow everything that was while prospecting in search of food. In our view, it would seem a tadpole, but bigger and harder. Anyway, as I introduce you to one of the first vertebrates to have lived on Earth and apparently, succeeded because it appeared a large number of new species.

Giant baboon


We all know that we come from Australopithecus, one of our ancestor that lived about 3 million years ago in the African plains. Was the size of a chimpanzee, maybe a little bigger, and the main feature is that it walked on two legs. For this ancestor must be careful lest he deal with large hyenas, lions giants, especially with a cousin who still have descendants today: giant baboon (Theropithecus brumpti).
Baboons (or Papios) current are very fierce, in some cases, a male only stood up to leopards weighing more than twice and have formidable weapons ... imagine what they can do in droves. As for weapons, the baboon is a wonder: is agile, fast, fierce fangs and has serious injuries that may infringe their predators. They do not usually spend more than 40 kg, and usually live in herds gathering, are omnivores. Peaceful coexistence is with them, and that is why coming up and impalas graze beside ... until suddenly, they go crazy, they catch a baby impala and cut up to bite. The same goes for other animals such as hares, rabbits, small antelopes and birds.


3 million years ago, our ancestor, Australopithecus could be eaten by giant baboons, as current devour small antelopes. They lived in the same places and in some ways were rivals and as rivals, Austra had much to lose. While Australopithecus could reach 60 or 70 kg in weight, the Giant Baboon exceeded 200 kg. And while standing Australopithecus measured 1.3 meters, the Giant Baboon reaches 1.90 or 2 meters. So these two (the Australopithecus and the Giant Baboon) shared resources, but perhaps, once the big fish ate the kid ....

Perhaps 3 million years ago, we would see a pair of giant baboons on a zebra, trying it down to eat it and it could be a zebra or hyena or a leopard, or a wildebeest, or maybe a monkey smaller but more important in human evolutionary history .... Australopithecus.

Dilophosaurus.


When I saw it for the first time (Cretacic) Jurassic Park ...


I thought ... - it is impossible that this creature may exist, they have been wrong. But I was the one who was wrong was thinking this ... it really did exist. It was a lizard in the Cretaceous that lived 200 million years ago in what is now North America and parts of China. Its name refers to its main feature: Dilophosaurus means "lizard two peaks". A bone crests that run along the cranial vault and are coming together in approaching the nostrils and give it a look as angry.

But apart from these two bony protrusions, it is noteworthy that the two membranes are born from the beginning of the neck and which maintains folded until suddenly extends them. Are thought to this membrane was deployed when was intended to look bigger compared to others that might arise as a threat, rather large lizards or other species of the same species. At initially thought that also served as a deterrent in clashes pairing ... but maybe this idea is wrong because females also exhibit membrane. Finally, females may also have to fight each other for territory.



These membranes resemble the actual Frilled, but much larger. In fact, the Dilophosaurus was a super-predator of the time. Media about 7 meters long (22 ft.) and weighed about 350 kg  (770 lb.).... in fact it was light enough for its size. It was fast, bipedal, with skull rather small and not massive, and long and slender neck and tail. In its skull had a boss that we have appointed a small crest bone.

By their fossil remains are thought to the Dilofosauro, was devoted to feeding carrion and small game, as it had no bite, no mass, nor necessary for hunting large prey strength. Another idea that seems well founded is that since it has long, thin teeth, with long necks and light heads, it is possible that much of their diet from fish outside.

And finally, something I do not know, where Jurassic Park were removed this prehistoric animal they are poisonous? That is not proven.
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