Showing posts with label Jurassic.. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Jurassic.. Show all posts

THE DIMORPHODON



Dimorphodon name comes from Greek and literally translate as di "two", morphe, "shape" and odon, "tooth"; "teeth in two forms." I have always liked those names because they are easy to remember, and give us clues about some of its features found.

The Dimorphodon, was a small prehistoric saurian . Although it should be noted that small size at that time was 1.5 meters( 5 ft) . But compared with the Quetzalcoatlus nearly 10 meters wide (32 ft), the Dimosphodon, it was like a dove for a condor.

In short, this size is curious, or maybe not so much .... But while the scientific literature this flying lizard remained in the aforementioned 1.5 meters (5ft) , in the film "Jurassic World" comes to 3 meter size (10 ft). What do not you believe it? Do you think that the film is made in strict compliance accredited science discoveries, or that there is no intention of exaggerating to surprise more and sell more? ... Because here you have proof.



Well, but let's not cruel, the truth is that thanks to films how are you, many young children and adults started to be interested and dive into the world of dinosaurs. It is a kind of social work ..... but hey, let the film we talked about it a while and have not been released.

What was the Dimorphodon? As for the evidence and representations that I have observed, I could say that would be a kind of flying lizard .... a kind of crocodile with wings and the face of a Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Even still flying, its body and especially the neck, was robust and strong. So it is conceivable that flying was not doing marathons. The sturdy neck responded to a pattern (in nature nothing is wasted) Dimorphodon head was large and heavy for a flying animal. Still, the skull had large openings reducías weight.

Had no peak, but a mouth full of teeth, and this would introduce the topic of the teeth and their name. And in the front was elongated teeth, as long fangs run out, those teeth were prepared to hunt prey in flight (you think mostly fish). Then in the innermost part, the fangs were shorter and robust, not so ready to catch in flight, but to tear flesh from their prey.


"Dimorphodon mount" by Frank Kovalchek from Anchorage, Alaska, USA - Dinosaur skeleton at the Rainbow Forest Museum.

The Dimorphodon is a genus of pterosaurs the early Jurassic period, 180-200 million years ago

Barosaurus.




The name "Barosaurus" refers to the size of this dinosaur. It is one of the greatest of all time, similar in size to Diplodocus.

The Barosaurus could reach up to 30 meters long and, at first sight, we would observe that it is the classic sauropod. Elongated, with stretched neck and whiplike tail with a tiny head and resting on its 4 legs. Was proportionally more massive than the Diplodocus, and this one was because its tail but was not as long, compared the neck itself was longer than the diplodocus.


Such a long neck poses many problems, especially uploading blood to the head that rose to the highest eat leaves of the highest trees. To address this, the general opinion raises the option of having a powerful and great heart. It has been estimated that the heart of this prehistoric animal could be as heavy and as big as the heaviest and largest bison: a heart of 1500 kg ...

Another option raises the possibility that something was 8 hearts .... funny because I know, some cephalopods have more than one heart ... but eight?
Another option is posed that Barosaurus veins had valves closed and allowed to recede and the blood does not create pressure which could be fatal. This method prevents the giraffes do not exploit their veins when head down to drink.
Mathematical models have clarified the issue, and have come to the conclusion that the animal raised its head .... then why such a long neck?

Another thing that attracts attention is that its neck vertebrae was huge. Of course, the whole animal was huge, have said the size of heart, but get an idea of ​​what our small neck vertebrae that are ... for those of Barosaurus larger than 1 meter. However, it is thought that these vertebrae were hollow, that it can reduce the weight of the neck.

Vegetarian and small head, this would be a great animal that if we go back 150 million years and travel to Africa, we would see it and we should be amazed that it was so big. We should be amazed that on Earth we know today had ever had a big animal.



Epidendrosaurus

Now, we know that the transition from reptiles to birds, there was thanks to some small theropods, hunters quickly and nimbly leaping from branch to branch to pounce upon its prey. Increasingly lighter and more agile, were those who had the most jumped protofeathers, who came to the farthest branches and so more prey. Until a jump, went to plan ... a prelude to fly like birds.

One of the clearest examples of these prehistoric animals, with characteristics of birds but without turning it was the Epidendrosaurus, whose name means "lizard on the branches." It is a small theropod maniraptor (hand robber), a taxon whose main feature is the very long, curved fingers ... a feature that served to grip tree branches.

But do not think that the change from reptile to bird was linearly which followed a straight way without errors. The evolution experienced with the species, and species were able to survive for tens of thousands of years and others not, and there is almost no such evidence. But Epidendrosaurus was very successful. In fact, this prehistoric animal lived after the first birds and thousands of years after the first bird which is known Archaeopteryx, this means that even still undergoing evolution and squeezing the characteristics that conditioned the animals, even appeared almost winged reptiles and birds flying when they appeared. The few fossils has been discovered that in the legs and tail feathers had slight marks, similar to those of Microraptor (another small thief).



If we saw now, we look like a bird more than a reptile, if we looked we would see that no beak, but a tiny little mouth full of sharp little teeth and suitable for hunting small reptiles, insects and even mammals were climbing clueless the branches of the trees in late Jurassic. We seem a small bird, it is thought that it was not larger than a dove. The only bones found are young specimens and their skeletons are as big as sparrows.

Archaeopteryx




Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird. While the Microraptor is considered a dinosaur with feathers like a bird, Archaeopteryx is already a bird. The first bird ... Jurassic.
They are very similar, are common features of other theropods: bone thing, sharp claws, beak with small but sharp teeth and feathers, both forelimbs and hind.

But unlike Microraptor, Archaeopteryx flew better, not only was involved in planning from branch to branch. Perhaps its flight is not elegant as the an albatross or as fast as a swift, but was the first to fly. and that is a lot. Possibly its fly mode would seem very strange if we saw now. Archaeopteryx also had long feathers on the hind legs, along with feathers front, it flew in a strange mode. Some think that because of this, was more agile in flight modern birds, but their ability to fly long distances would be less.

Not very big, measuring just 35 cm, and weighed just under 500 gr. Its brain was proportionally greater than other theropods and structure of his ear and was similar to that of modern birds.

We could say that its size was similar to that of a magpie .... Consider the differences:


Incidentally, the Velociraptor, is a close relative.

Supersaurus.



Supersaurus (SUPER-LIZARD). An ambitious name of a sauropod that could be the greatest who ever lived on Earth. Perhaps some rushed in to put that name ... I mean: The sauropods were the largest dinosaurs that ever lived. Within this group, for example, we find the famous sauropods such as Diplodocus (103 feet long), Argentinosaurus (131 ft) and Amphicoelias fragillimus (up to 155 feet, if its existence is confirmed). So if this sauropod called "SUPER" understand that is bigger than these three ... right? Well the answer is NO, is smaller, measuring up to 100 ft at best, like a Diplodocus.

But, when they found the first fossils seemed that these prehistoric animals could measure some more. Initially estimated 42 meters. And had to give them a name.

Finally, little more can be said of Supersaurus only who like all sauropods, had a small head, a long neck and a long tail. Could weigh 40 tons, and was a vegetarian. Imagine how much they should eat grass.

This prehistoric animal lived in the Jurassic in what is now North America.

Giraffatitan


Giraffatitan, I think everyone intuit the meaning of the name: Giraffe Titan. This sauropod be at least elongated. For a long time was considered a Brachiosaurus, a prehistoric animal considering for years the largest of all terrestrial dinosaurs. In fact, Wikipedia definitions and descriptions for Giraffatitan Braquiosaurus and is the same.

The only species of the genus is called brancai Giraffatitan measured 25 meters long and 13 tall. That means you could poke your head perfectly by a fourth floor window. And its weight is estimated at 37 tonnes maximum

.
Unlike other sauropods, had a constitution similar to that of current giraffes with long forelimbs and a long neck, which probably used to feed in the tops of the trees had spatulate teeth very suitable for diet . His skull has many holes, probably to reduce their weight to be a neck support 10 meters long.

The similarities with other sauropods ranging from a small brain compared to his body and he was a vegetarian who ate hundreds of pounds of conifers, ferns, horsetails and ginkgo or bennetites.





He lived in the Upper Jurassic in what is now Africa.

Saurophaganax, theeater of saurians.

Saurophaganax, theeater of saurians is a genus represented by a single species of theropod dinosaur alosáurido: Saurophaganax maximus.

This was a predator who was at the top of the food chain of the time. A hunter considered the gender of the Allosaurus, which rivaled the east by the Jurassic reservoirs superior.De titanic fact, Saurophaganax maximus, was greater than any Allosaurus... as a Zhuchengtyrannus. Could grow to 11 meters long (36 ft), 3.5 tons, and nearly 4 meters (17 ft) high ... But some paleontologists experts who have researched their fossils suggest that it could reach up to 15 meters (50 ft)long and nearly 6 tons (as T. Rex) y. .. apart from these data that can help us imagine a similar beast, S. maximus shared a characteristic of other species of Allosaurus: speed. Could grow to more than 10 km / h; nothing compared to a Formula One car but far more titanic than animals that were part of their diet as the Apatosaurus.

If it was a Allosurus or not is not known, but is increasingly more confident that it is not, what we do know the Saurophaganax maximus is: if it looked like the Allosaurus, the bite would be so terrible as these predators ... not good .... even more powerful and effective because it is a large species 3 meters (12 ft) and two tons heavier. We could say that if the Allosaurus was a bull shark, S. maximus would be a great white shark.


The main feature is its maximus Saurophaganax horizontal plate at the base of the dorsal neural spine, this gives a look similar to the typical fantastic dragons have a series of chevrons along the body.

Allosaurus fragilis.

When I wrote the post of Allosaurus Europeaus, also promised to write about the Allosaurus fragilis, the best-known species whose fossilized bones have more information to the expert paleontologists.


But not only important for the amount of fossil fuels. Anyone who has heard or knows anything about the dinosaur Allosaurus know that this was a T. Rex of his time. It was a prehistoric monster that was in the top of the food chain, a predator with a bite capable of prey animals as large as Stegosaurus and Diplodocus.







Fortunately for the Allosaurus did not have to deal with T.rex (who lived 80 million years later), the Spinosaurus (30 million years later) or Giganotosaurus (60 million years ago). Possibly the only species of dinosaur that could stand up was Saurophaganax that like Allosaurus lived for about 150 million years in the late Jurassic.

Their physical characteristics are:

Length: Nearly 30 feets long.
Height: 13 feets.
Weight: 6000 lb.

(T.rex- 43 for long., 18 tall and nearly 13.000 lb)

Although smaller than T. rex, Allosaurus's body was much the same way, the only notable difference was that his front arms were compared with the body, stronger and longer.

Another feature is that the Allosaurus (some experts believe) reached high speeds ... of course for these sizes of dinosaurs. Reached speeds of up to 6,2 mill / h and this speed could reach any of stalking and its victims.

Once the victim came to them with a bite attack stubborn 70-curved teeth inward dams prevented their escape, lest they (the prisoners) do without the piece of meat that was trapped in its jaws Allosaurus.

Nephila Jurassica

What is the largest known spider in prehistory? I guess those with arachnophobia do not want to know. But for everyone else, this question is no longer, at least, interesting to know.

Currently, the spider named Goliath is larger and heavier there. You can reach 30 cm in length with legs extended, although poisonous, is not fatal.


The fossil ever found largest spider is the Nephila Jurassica. A spider bigger than Goliath. Each leg was 15 cm and its body (the females who were older) had a thickness of up to 12 cm. We extended that could reach 42 cm easily.

Nephila Another curiosity is that the oldest fossil spider found. And it was in April 2011 when they discovered their fossils in what is now China.

Another curiosity of this spider is that their fossils belong to the Jurassic and the Carboniferous (when there were large insects that increased much in size by the lack of predators and the high concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere). But hey, that does not mean they do not exist. In fact we think that existed when the land was a continent, Pangea, 1000 million years ago.

Finally, little is known of Jurassica Nephila, sure we'll learn more over time.

Bonnerichthys gladius.


The abundance of the seas can feed giants as blue whales, the largest animal ever. An animal prey are among the smallest in the world. Enter in their mouths a lot of water full of plankton is trapped in the baleen to filter the water.

But this way of eating is not unique in today's whales. There were huge fish that fed the same way. For example Bonnerichthys gladius. A fish of about 8 feet long that lived in the oceans for over 100 m illion years in what is part of the Cretaceous and Jurassic

The gladius Bonnerichthys had a disproportionate head, big eyes, toothless mouth, butextremely elongated jaws. He is credited with the first animal that was fed by filtration.

By the way, do not remember the basking shark??

Allosaurus Europaeus.


Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator with a large skull, equipped with dozens of large, sharp teeth. It averaged 8.5 meters (28 ft) in length, though fragmentary remains suggest it could have reached over 12 meters (39 ft). Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, its three-fingered forelimbs were small, and the body was balanced by a long, heavy tail.

Allosaurus fragilis, the best-known species, had an average length of 8.5 meters (28 ft), with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen estimated at 9.7 meters long (32 ft), and an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons).

The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size.

Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period in the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian, in what is now North America and Europe.

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