The first bees

A few years ago, an event happened that alarmed the world population: the bees were disappearing. Do not really know why, but I'm sure that human activity played a role, the question is who killed millions of bees, and are still disappearing.

That made ​​me curious enough: there were bees in prehistory, not 10,000 or 15,000 years ago, which we know existed and we know that the honey collected our ancestors, but for many thousands or millions of years.

From the information I have collected I have extracted the following. Prehistoric bees appeared before the appearance of the first humans. The appearance of the first bees (of which there is evidence, the Melittosphex burmensis) dates back about 100 million years. The appearance of these prehistoric bees was a mixture of carnivorous wasps and honey bees now. Their lifestyle was similar to the current bee, living in colonies and you gathered pollen for their young ... or so it seems, a little puzzled because it had features jackets and carnivorous wasps.

Maybe they were omnivores, so I say I'm not an expert, but it is curious that began to develop the first flowers, the most common that we see now, we have then a fruit and then a seed, does just 100 million years, just when bees appeared on Earth ... that chance and effective relationship, after 100 million years, that relationship remains virtually unchanged.
Another curious fact is that since bees first appeared (the Melittosphex burmensis) to the following species of bee on record (Electrapis tornquisti) spent 50 million years ... maybe had not yet developed enough of flowering plants (angiosperms) to accommodate and support to other species of bees .... or maybe, the characteristics of these small carnivorous bees, wasps (3mm) the Melittosphex, allowed them to exterminate their competitors at the time that these appeared ... or maybe, they began to develop new species, these disappeared with the mass extinction of Cretaceous dinosaurs 65 million years ago ....

... curious mystery.

Pachycephalosaurus


Since I can remember I always wanted to know more and more about dinosaurs, more and more, and my atraena me most was the Pachycephalosaurus. In all the pictures I saw when I was little, it appeared this saurian with what to me looked like a piece of shell that had not yet shaken off. Years later, looking around, I discovered that it was a piece of shell, but its head, its skull formidably thick and strong. Able to withstand the strongest thrusts like the shell of a turtle. I also discovered that the name "Pachycephalosaurus" means literally that: lizard or reptile thick head.

The next thing I asked was why on this lizard had this strange head? My first conclusion was that used to hit, to dispute with other males the dominant male position ... do something like bison and bulls have horns or a bony prominence at the top of the skull. Although I'm not sure why, some experts have dismissed this feature ... but then why has a skull with a 25 cm thick? ... Not everyone agrees that the Pachycephalosaurus not have this bulge to beat their opponents. Many people, as I am, ignorant, think that is the most likely explanation. Others think that the issue that brought its bulging head served to intimidate predators.It is true that possibly get, because along the shell, there were numerous small spiny protrusions capable of hurting. Probably, the predator would attack, receive the following message: I'm not very big, I have no fangs or claws, but I have a weapon / protection in the most fragile part of the body .... the neck and head. What is evident is that its thick head was protected its tiny brain blows ... had special protection. So not only seemed difficult to hunt, but also it was.

The only species of this genus was P. wyomingensis and as the name suggests, was found in the state of Wyoming, in the United States. It was a herbivore (or omnivore) of late Cretaceous and may have been represented in this prehistoric animal illustrations and on the horizon the meteorite that ended with most of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, along with the T.Rex and Triceratops.

Could reach up to 7 meters in length and can weigh nearly 3 tons. Its hind legs were strong, however the front were small and "weak", for this is thought to be traveling in a biped. Tail was robust and heavy to counteract the weight of the head.
The neck was short and sturdy able to sustain its heavy skull (this could be evidence that it received and provoked strong impact with his head). Its teeth were small and elongated (so you think he could be omnivorous small dams).

Although it has long been known to this lizard, about 80 years, there have been few remains that have been found, so talk it over, it might be speculated.
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